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  • Writer's pictureJason Revere

Understanding the Franchise Disclosure Document: A Comprehensive Guide for Prospective Franchisees


If you're considering investing in a franchise, it is crucial to have a complete understanding of the franchise disclosure document (FDD). This document serves as a comprehensive source of information about the franchisor, providing key details about the business opportunity, its history, financials, and other essential aspects. In this article, we will delve into the significance of the FDD, explore its historical context, and offer a detailed breakdown of each item within the document.

The Historical Context:

The implementation of the Franchise Disclosure Document can be traced back to the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) efforts to protect potential franchisees from fraudulent or deceptive practices. Before the FTC stepped in, many aspiring franchisees faced significant risks due to the lack of transparency in the franchise industry. Recognizing the need for consumer protection, the FTC enacted the Franchise Rule in 1979, which required franchisors to disclose specific information to potential franchisees.

The Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD):

The FDD is a legally mandated document that provides comprehensive information to prospective franchisees about the franchise system, the franchisor, and the rights and obligations associated with the franchise relationship. It consists of 23 items that cover a wide range of crucial aspects. Let's take a closer look at each item and how prospective franchisees should evaluate them:

1. The Franchisor and any Parents, Predecessors, and Affiliates:

Item 1 provides details about the franchisor's history, including any corporate changes, predecessors, or affiliated companies. It helps you understand the franchisor's stability and experience in the industry.

2. Business Experience:

This item discloses information about the franchisor's management team and their relevant experience in running a franchise system. Assessing the team's expertise can give you confidence in their ability to support your franchise venture.

3. Litigation:

Here, the FDD reveals any past or pending lawsuits involving the franchisor or its key executives. Reviewing this item allows you to assess the potential legal risks associated with the franchise. Every franchise eventually has litigation that must be reported here. It's not a deal breaker. But if you see a pattern, you should begin to question the opportunity.

4. Bankruptcy:

This item discloses whether the franchisor or its key executives have filed for bankruptcy in the past. Evaluating this information helps gauge the franchisor's financial stability. This item should be blank! Or at the very least, there better be one heck of a good reason that the franchise (or its principals) declared bankruptcy. Usually a good rule of thumb is - if you see the that they declared bankruptcy, you need to declare, "I'm out" and RUN!

5. Initial Fees:

Item 5 outlines the initial fees and payments required to enter into a franchise agreement. Evaluate the fees against industry standards and consider the value provided in return.

6. Other Fees:

This section covers ongoing fees and expenses, such as royalties, marketing fees, or technology fees. Understand the nature and amount of these fees to evaluate their impact on your profitability. Every franchise will require ongoing payments, the key is to determine if they providing greater value than the cost.

For example, if a franchisor utilizes a call center to book your sales appointments for you, see if what they charge is less than it would cost you to hire an employee to perform that job for you locally.

7. Initial Investment:

Item 7 provides a breakdown of the estimated initial investment required to start and operate the franchise. Assess the costs against your financial capabilities and compare them to similar franchise opportunities. Ask current franchisees if they were able to open their businesses with the within the range reported here.

8. Restrictions on Sources of Products and Services:

This item informs you about any restrictions on purchasing products or services for your franchise. Understanding these limitations helps you evaluate the availability and cost of necessary supplies. Most franchises will require you to purchase supplies from specified vendors; during the validation period you'll want to be sure to ask current franchisees if these restrictions help or hinder the business.

9. Franchisee's Obligations:

Item 9 outlines the key responsibilities and obligations of franchisees. Evaluate the requirements and commitments to determine if they align with your skills, resources, and expectations. If the franchise you're investigating requires you to carry a specialized license to operate the business, be sure that it's even possible for you to attain the license.

10. Financing:

This section discloses any financing arrangements offered by the franchisor or third-party lenders. Review the terms, interest rates, and repayment conditions to assess the feasibility of obtaining financing.

11. Franchisor's Assistance, Advertising, Computer Systems, and Training:

Item 11 details the support provided by the franchisor, including training programs, marketing assistance, and technology systems. Assess the quality and extent of support to determine if it meets your needs. You will also want to verify that what is written here is actually being delivered when you speak to the existing franchisees during the validation period.

12. Territory:

Understand the territory restrictions and exclusivity provisions outlined in this item. Evaluate whether the assigned territory provides adequate customer base and growth opportunities. This is one area that usually has some wiggle room. Be sure to have open dialog with the franchisor when settling on your protected territory.

13. Trademarks:

Item 13 explains the franchisor's trademark usage policies, intellectual property rights, and any restrictions on the franchisee's use of trademarks. Evaluate the strength and value of the franchisor's brand.

14. Patents, Copyrights, and Proprietary Information:

This section provides information about any patents, copyrights, or proprietary information owned by the franchisor. Evaluate the protection and potential benefits associated with these assets.

15. Obligation to Participate in the Actual Operation of the Franchise Business:

Item 15 outlines whether the franchisee is required to be actively involved in day-to-day operations. Consider your desired level of involvement and evaluate the impact on your time and resources. This is a tremendously important Item that will have a real impact on your day-to-day. If your goal is to own a business that you can run semi-absent, or even fully passively, you'll want to be sure that you're permitted to.

16. Restrictions on What the Franchisee May Sell:

This item explains any restrictions on the products or services the franchisee can offer. Evaluate the limitations to ensure they align with your desired business model and market demand. Also, if you desire to own another business during your term as a franchisee (whether it be a franchise or not), you'll need to be sure that you are afforded the right to do so.

17. Renewal, Termination, Transfer, and Dispute Resolution:

Understand the terms and conditions related to renewing the franchise agreement, termination rights, transferability, and dispute resolution procedures. Assess the fairness and flexibility of these provisions. Remember, if you intend to sell your franchise at any point, this is the Item that will dictate some of the terms of that sale.

18. Public Figures:

If the franchisor uses public figures in its advertising or marketing campaigns, this item provides details about the relationship and compensation. Evaluate the impact of celebrity endorsements on your business. Having celebrity endorsers is quite rare, usually only reserved for the largest franchise systems, but it does happen, and can provide great value to the franchisee. Examples include: Peyton Manning for Papa Johns, Shaquielle O'neal and Steph Curry for Subway, and Emmitt Smith for QC Kenetix, to name a few.

19. Financial Performance Representations:

Item 19, also known as the Earnings Claim, discloses financial performance information of existing franchise locations. The amount of data provided here will vary greatly across different franchise systems. Some will provide full income statements from franchise locations, others will show only top line revenues, and still others will choose not to share any financial information at all.

The franchisor is only permitted to share with you what is published in their most current FDD, but their franchisees are bound by nothing. Review this section carefully, but also conduct independent research by reaching out to existing (and former) franchisees to validate the data.

20. Outlets and Franchisee Information:

This item provides a list of current and former franchisees, their contact information, and the franchisor's history of franchise terminations and non-renewals. Although the franchisor will likely provide you with a select few current franchisees to speak to, you'll want to be sure to speak to as many as possible to get a clear picture of the actualities of running the franchise business. You can use this list to find and contact franchisees directly to gain insights into their experiences.

21. Financial Statements:

The franchisor's audited financial statements are disclosed in this item. Analyze the financial health and stability of the franchisor by reviewing these statements and seeking professional advice if needed. You want to be sure that the franchisor has enough cashflow and assets to provide the level of support promised.

22. Contracts:

Item 22 includes sample copies of the franchise agreement, any ancillary agreements, and other contractual documents. Review these contracts carefully, preferably with the assistance of a legal expert, and/or a qualified franchise consultant.

23. Receipts:

This final item acknowledges that you, as the prospective franchisee, have received the FDD. The FTC wants to ensure that the franchise buyer has ample time to review the FDD so they enacted what people in the franchise industry call a "cool off" period. Every franchise is required by law to deliver to you the entire FDD a minimum of 14 days prior to offering you the right to buy the franchise. This receipt provides proof that the franchise did not violate the rule. Retain a copy of the signed receipt for your records.


The franchise disclosure document is a vital resource for prospective franchisees to evaluate the franchisor's business opportunity. By thoroughly reviewing each item and conducting independent research, you can make an informed decision about investing in a franchise. Seek professional advice from attorneys, accountants, and existing franchisees to ensure a comprehensive evaluation of the FDD and the franchise system. Remember, due diligence and careful assessment are key to a successful franchise investment.

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